The OAS was created in response to the referendums on self-determination for Algeria. There were uprisings in January 1960 by the colons and pied noirs who again took to arms in April 1961 (the Generals' Putsch). Both these inssurections were swiftly suppressed and many of the leaders who had created the OAS were imprisoned. By terrorist acts and assassinations (Mouloud Feraoun) they, like the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), attempted to alter the events of the Algerian War. Both groups were considered terrorist organizations trying to encourage change. The OAS even attempted to assassinate Charles de Gaulle in 1962.
The main hope of the OAS was to provoke the FLN into restarting military action after a cease-fire was agreed in the Evian Accords of March and the referendum of June 1962; over 100 bombs a day were detonated by the OAS in March. Despite the carnage the FLN remained resolute and on June 17, 1962 the OAS agreed to the ceasefire. In April 1962 its leader, Raoul Salan was captured. The group was effectively eliminated by 1963. However the group was granted an amnesty for its actions and few members were properly tried or significantly imprisoned.