was the military codename
for a series of air raids conducted by the British air force
on the city of Hamburg
beginning in the end of July 1943
. It was at the time the heaviest assault in the history of aerial warfare.
In the night of July 27/28, the bombings culminated in the spawning of the so-called "Feuersturm" (firestorm), which burned out some eight square miles of the city, causing 45,000 deaths and leaving one million people homeless.