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Nototheniidae

Nototheniidae
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Perciformes
Suborder:Nototheniidae
Species
Genus Aethotaxis
   mitopteryx
Genus Cryothenia
   peninsulae
Genus Dissostichus
   eleginoides
   mawsoni
Genus Gobionotothen
   acuta
   barsukovi
   gibberifrons
   marionensis
Genus Gvozdarus
   svetovidovi
Genus Lepidonotothen
   kempi
   larseni
   macrophthalma
   mizops
   nudifrons
   squamifrons
Genus Notothenia
   angustata
   coriiceps
   cyanobrancha
   microlepidota
   rossii
Genus Pagothenia
   borchgrevinki
   brachysoma
Genus Paranotothenia
   dewitti
   magellanica
Genus Patagonotothen (all non-Antartic)
   brevicauda
   canina
   cornucola
   elegans
   guntheri
   jordani
   kreffti
   longipes
   ramsayi
   sima
   squamiceps
   tessellata
   thompsoni
   wiltoni
Genus Pleuragramma
   antarcticum
Genus Trematomus
   bernacchii
   eulepidotus
   hansoni
   lepidorhinus
   loennbergii
   newnesi
   nicolai
   pennellii
   scotti
   tokarevi
   vicarius

Fish of the perciform, suborder Notothenioidei includes eight families with 43 genera and 122 species. Ninety-six species inhabit Antarctic waters and 26 are non-Antarctic. They dominate the cold shelf waters surrounding the Antarctic continent. They comprise 45% of the Antartic fish fauna. However in many areas of the Antartic shelf, including the highest latitudes, notothenioids make up 77% of the species and 9095% of fish abundance and biomass.

Typically variation in the barbel, a key taxonomic character, separates the species. Hence, they are erroneously identified as cods (Gadidae). Unlike cods, they lack swim bladders. As the dominant Antarctic fish species, they occupy both sea bottom and water column ecological niches. Although lacking a swimbladder, they have undergone a depth-related diversification, such as increase in fatty tissues and body density approaching neutral, to fill a variety of water column niches. As the chilly subantartic waters averages 1 to 4 degrees Celsius, Antartic species have antifreeze proteins in their blood.

As Antartica is surrounded by currents which kept the frigid waters separate from the world's oceans, this trait favours the Notothenioidei to the virtual exclusion of other fish species which are not adapted to the subzero water temperatures. Some species also exhibit morphism, for example, the circum-Antarctic nototheniid Trematomus newnesi exists as two morphs in the Ross Sea, the typical morph and a large mouth/broad headed morph.

As the major fish resource in the Southern Ocean, notothenioids are under increasing pressure from commercial fishing.