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A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or thing's real name, (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). As a concept, it is distinct from a pseudonym, though there may be overlap between the two.

Etymology: In Middle English the word was ekename (from the verb to eke, "enlarge"; compare Swedish öknamn). Later, an ekename developed into a nickname.

Lots of things have nicknames

Table of contents
1 People and their Nicknames
2 Cities and their Nicknames
3 Some Common Items and their Nicknames

People and their Nicknames

Types of personal nickname:

1. A nickname may relate directly to a person's first name. Examples:

2. A nickname may relate directly to a person's surname. Examples: 3. It may also relate indirectly to a surname. Examples: 4. A nickname may relate to the person's job. Examples: 5. It may relate (offensively or otherwise) to a person's nationality or place of origin. Examples: 6. It may relate to a person's physical characteristics. Examples: Conversely, it may be used ironically for someone with the opposite characteristic, e.g. Curly for someone with straight hair - this form is very typical in Australian English, e.g: 7. It may relate to a person's character. Examples: 8. It may relate to a specific incident or action. Example: Capability Brown was so called because he used the word "capability" instead of "possibility". Other examples include: Chemical Ali, Comical Ali.

9. It may compare the person with a famous or fictional character. Examples:

10. A famous person's nickname may be unique to them: 11. A person's nickname may have no traceable origin. For example, a person named "Harold" may be nicknamed "Fred" for no apparent reason, or a man who was named after a relative may ask his friends to call him "Chip" to avoid confusion.

Cities and their Nicknames

Some Common Items and their Nicknames

much to add here, this is a start