Udall was born in Hampshire and was educated at Westminster School and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He taught Latin at Eton College, of which he was headmaster from about 1534 until 1541, being forced to leave by a scandal. A Protestant, he flourished under King Edward VI of England, and survived into the reign of the Catholic Mary I. He published several translations and commentaries for the benefit of his pupils. Ralph Roister Doister was written specifically for schoolboys to perform, but was not published until after the author's death.