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A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells of the nervous system, typically by interacting with membrane proteins and especially ion channels. Many of the venoms and other toxins that organisms use in defense against vertebrates are neurotoxins. A common effect is paralysis, which typically onsets extremely rapidly. Examples of neurotoxins include tetrodotoxin and components of the venom in bees, scorpions and spiders.