is a sound produced when the air is allowed to escape through the nose, while its oral passage may be blocked by the lips or tongue (a nasal stop
) or opened (a nasal vowel
). Nasal stops are often called simply "nasals".
Here are some nasal consonants:
English, German and Cantonese have [m], [n] and [ŋ]
French has [m], [n] and [ɲ]
Catalan and Italian have [m], [n], [ɲ] as phonemes, and [ŋ] as an allophone.
Spanish has [m], [n], [ɲ] as phonemes, and [ɱ] and [ŋ] as allophones.
French and Portuguese have nasal vowels. In IPA, nasal vowels are indicated by placing a tilde (~) over the vowel in question. So French sang = /sã/.
See: phonetics, stop, fricative, affricate, approximant, International Phonetic Alphabet.