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The Mosin-Nagant is a military rifle of Russia and later the Soviet Union, in service in various forms from 1891 until the 1960s, when it was finally replaced in its final function as a sniper rifle by the SVD rifle (Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova - Dragunov's Sniper Rifle).

The rifle was originally the "winner" of a competition in Imperial Russia meant to replace the antiquated Berdan rifles then in use (which were single-shot breech-loading rifles, similar to the British Martini rifle). Sergei Ivanovich Mosin submitted a design, which was combined with that of the design of the Belgian designer Leon Nagant (which the army had favored) to pander to Russia's national pride, and the resulting rifle, the Mosin Nagant Model 1891 was accepted for service.

The cartridge it was designed for, the Russian 7.62x54R, has been in service continuously since its adoption, and remains so to this day. Millions of Mosin-Nagant rifles were made, and recently a large quantity of them have found their ways into the American market for antique and collectible firearms.