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Military of Indonesia

Tentara Nasional Indonesia
Military manpower
Military age18 years of age
Availabilitymales age 15-49: 62,948,286 (2000 est.)
Fit for military servicemales age 15-49: 36,826,282 (2000 est.)
Reaching military age annuallymales: 2,273,324 (2000 est.)
Military expenditures
Dollar figure$1 billion (FY98/99)
Percent of GDP1.3% (FY98/99)

Indonesia's armed forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, or TNI, formerly ABRI) total about 250,000 members, including the army, navy, marines, and air force. The army is by far the largest, with about 196,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget is only 1.8% of GDP but is supplemented by revenue from many military businesses and foundations.

The Indonesian National Police were for many years a branch of the armed forces. The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000. With 150,000 personnel, the police form a much smaller portion of the population than in most nations. The total number of national and local police in 2002 was approximately 270,000.

Indonesia is at a relative peace with its neighbors, although competing South China Sea claims, where Indonesia has large natural gas reserves, concern the Indonesian Government. Without a credible external threat in the region, the military historically viewed its prime mission as assuring internal security. Military leaders now say they wish to transform the military to a professional, external security force but acknowledge that the armed forces will continue to play an internal security role for some time.

Throughout Indonesian history the military maintained a prominent role in the nation's political and social affairs. Traditionally a significant number of cabinet members had military backgrounds, while active duty and retired military personnel occupied a large number of seats in the parliament. Commanders of the various territorial commands played influential roles in the affairs of their respective regions. In the post-Soeharto period, civilian and military leaders have advocated removing the military from politics (for example, the military's representatives in parliament have been much reduced), but the military's political influence remains extensive.

The Indonesian Navy purchased a number of ships of the former East German navy in the 1990s.

Military branches