Born in a peasant family in Verkhnyaya Troitsa village (Верхняя Троица), Tverskaya Gubernia, Russia, he lived since 1889 in St. Petersburg, and was a metal worker. In 1898 he joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (РСДРП). From March 1919 to 1938 he was Chairman of the All-Union Executive Committee (ВЦМК, Vsesoyouznyi Tsentralnyi Ispolnitelnyi Komitet). He retired in 1946 and died shortly afterward in Moscow. The city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad.
This article is a stub.