Taylor participated in D Day with the paratroopers dropped in the Cotentin peninsula (82nd & 101st Airborne Divisions) (west of Utah beach) a few hours before the first landing waves, with the objectives of clearing Carentan and securing the highway to Cherbourg. Later, he was the commander of allied troops in Berlin (1949-1951). In 1953, he was sent to the Korean War, and from 1955 to 1959 he was the Army Chief of Staff.
General Taylor retired from active service in July 1959 and was recalled as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1962-1964. He again retired and became Ambassador to South Vietnam from 1964-1965, succeeding Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr He was Special Consultant to the President and Chairman of the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 1965-1969; was President of the Institute of Defense Analysis, 1966-1969. General Taylor died in Washington, D.C., on 19 April 1987.