The first was a schismatic group named after Lucifer Calaritanus, Bishop of Cagliari, in the late 4th century. It is linked to the complex political machinations involving the emperor Constantius II and Pope Liberius. Lucifer also had links with the Arian heresy. The movement died out early in the following century. Orthodoxus's Dialogue against the Luciferians from circa 376 is a primary source about this group.
Various gnostic Luciferian sects have also been associated with the image of Lucifer, in the root sense of the bringer of light. The orthodox view is to associate Lucifer with "Satan before the fall". Others link Lucifer with Prometheus who stole light (wisdom?) from the gods to bring to man. These sects have had persistent groups of followers since the Middle Ages.
See also Gnosticism