Serving with the French armies he distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1742, 1743 and 1744, and at the battle of Fontenoy in 1745, retiring to Bagnolet in 1757, and occupying his time with theatrical performances and the society of men of letters. He died at St Assise.
The duke married Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, who bore him a son Philip (Égalité), duke of Orleans, and a daughter, who married the last duke of Bourbon. His second wife, Madame de Montesson, whom he married secretly in 1773, was a clever woman and an authoress of some repute. He had two natural sons, known as the abbot of St Far and the abbot of St Albin.
See L'Automne d'un prince, a collection of letters from the duke to his second wife, edited by J Hermand (1910).