The earliest radio transmitters, including the Alexanderson alternator were all longwave transmitters.
In Europe, North Africa and Asia, longwave radio frequencies between 153 and 281 kHz are used for domestic and international broadcasting. In the Americas, frequencies between 200 and 430 kHz are used for non-directional radio beacons.
The frequency of 60 kHz is used by several nations, such as the United States, Germany, England, and Japan, for extremely accurate time and precision frequency signals. Many commercial appliances sold since approximately 2000 have a VLF receiver capable of receiving these signals, which penetrate indoors more effectively than mediumwave or shortwave signals.
Radio signals below 50 kHz are capable of penetrating ocean depths to approximately 200 meters. The United States, Russian, British, Swedish, and Indian navies communicate with submarines on these frequencies.
Longwave transmitting antennas take up large amounts of space, and have been the cause of controversy in the United States and Europe due to fears over proximity to high-power radio waves.