The village has only been known as Long Crendon since the English Civil War. The "Long" prefix refers simply to the length of the village at that time, and was added to differentiate it from nearby Grendon Underwood. Previously it was simply known as Crendon. This name is Anglo Saxon and means Creoda's Hill (in 1086 it was listed in the Domesday Book as Crededone).
The village has a long and illustrious history. The manor was once a great building that housed the Earls of Buckingham and over the years the various manorial estates in the village have passed through the hands of the Crown, Oxford University, the Earls of March and the Marquis of Buckingham. It is the latter that is presently the lord of the manor of Long Crendon.
In 1162 an order of Augustine monks was founded in the village at nearby Nutley Abbey. The park in which the abbey stood was donated to the abbey itself by the incumbent of the manor the Earl of Buckingham. At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries the annual income was calculated as over £437: an immense amount of money for the time. The abbey is still there, though is now a manor house in its own right.
In 1218 Long Crendon was granted a royal charter to hold a weekly market; the monies from which were to be collected by William Earl Marshall who owned the manor at that time. The town (as it was then) was certainly important in this period as it shared the distinction with Aylesbury as being the only places in the whole of England where needles were manufactured. The royal charter was later removed and the market moved and joined with the existing one in Thame.
The parish church is dedicated to St Mary. There are also churches of Baptist, Primitive Methodist and Wesleyan Methodist denominations in the village.