False documents, fiction written in the form of, or about, apparently real, but actually fake documents. Examples include Robert Graves' I, Claudius, a fictional autobiography of the Roman emperor Claudius; and H.P. Lovecraft's Necronomicon, a fictional book of evil that appeared frequently in horror fiction and film, written by both Lovecraft and his admirers.
Flashback, general term for altering time sequences, taking characters back to the beginning of the tale, for instance.
Frame tale, or a story within a story, where a main story is used to organise a series of shorter stories
Historical novel, story set amidst historical events, pioneered by Sir Walter Scott in his novels of Scottish history. Protagonists may be fictional or historical personages, or a combination.
Magic realism, a form particularly popular in Latin American but not limited to that region, in which events are described realistically, but in a magical haze of strange local customs and beliefs. Gabriel García Márquez is a notable author in the style.
Narrative, fiction written as if it were related to the reader by a single participant or observer.
Word play, in which the nature of the words used themselves become part of the work
Authors also manipulate the language of their works to create a desired response from the reader. This is the realm of the rhetorical devices.
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