In 1424, The town of Linlithgow was partially destroyed in a great fire. King James I rebuilt the Palace as a grand residence for Scottish Royalty. Mary Queen of Scots was born here in December 1542 and occasionally stayed at the Palace during her reign. After the Union of the Crowns in 1603, various members of the Royal family stayed at the Palace during trips to Scotland.
The last resident was Bonnie Prince Charlie who stayed at Linlithgow in 1745 after the failure of his campaign to regain the British throne. The Duke of Cumberland's army destroyed most of the palace buildings in January 1746.
Some restoration work was carried out in the 1970s by Historic Scotland who own the Palace. The site is open to visitors all year round.