He was born in Paris, France. As a poet he was noted for his poetry of atmosphere and detail. His work spanned numerous literary movements. Before he reached 19 years of age, Fargue had already published in L'Art littéraire in 1894 and his important poem Tancrède appeared in the magazine Pan in 1895.
As an opponent of the surrealists, he became a member of the Symbolist poetry circle connected with Le Mercure de France.
He was also a poet of Paris, and later in his career he published two books about the city, D'après Paris (1931) and Le piéton de Paris (1939).
He published a book of recollections about his friend, the composer Ravel. He was a member of the Apaches and remained a lifelong friend of Ravel. One of his poems, "Rêves", was set to music by Ravel in 1927.
He died in 1947 in Paris and is buried in the Cimetiere de Montparnasse.