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In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata.

Latinus, the wise king of the Latins, hosted Aeneas' army of exiled Trojans and let them reorganize their life in Latium. His daughter Lavinia had been promised to Turnus, king of the Rutuli, but Latinus preferred to offer her to Aeneas; Turnus consequently declared war on Aeneas (at the urging of Hera). The outcome was that Turnus was killed and his people captured. Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, founded Albalonga and was the first in a long series of kings.

Aeneas and Lavinia had one son, Silvius. He named the city Lavinium after her.

In biology, Lavinia is a genus of fish of the Cyprinid family.