Language educationLanguage education
is the teaching and learning of a language or languages.
There are several methods in wide use:
- Immersive places students in a situation where they must use a foreign language, whether or not they know it. This creates fluency, but not precision, accuracy of usage or beauty.
- Tutoring by a native speaker is one of the best all-around methods. However it requires a motivated native tutor, which can be a rare, expensive commodity.
- 'Directed practice'\ has students repeat phrases. This method is used by U.S. diplomatic courses. It can quickly provide a "phrasebook" knowledge of the language. Within these limits, the students' usage is accurate and precise. However the student's choice of what to say is not flexible.
- Absorptive has students listen to or view video tapes of language models acting in situations. Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself.
- Grammatic instructs students in grammar, and provides vocabulary to memorize. Most instructors now acknowledge that this method is ineffective by itself.
- Eclectic methods combine the above into a single course of study. These seem the best; at least, an eclective method is recommended by Barry Farber, a major polygot (25 languages) who formed the famous New York Language Club.
Mr. Farber advocates that a student follow several paths at once. In brief the method he recommends is to: 1) study the first few chapters of a grammatical textbook. Then 2) begin understanding a real text. He also advocates use of a 3) phrasebook, 4) audio aids to pronunciation, and 5) a written transcript for role-playing. Farber says that after years of study, the best
way to learn vocabulary is to make up memorable stories about each word.
The study or learning of English in an environment where English is already the predominant language, such as in an English speaking country, by someone whose first language is not English.
The study or learning of English in an environment where English is not already the predominant language, such as in a non English speaking country, by someone whose first language is not English.
- EFL - English as a foreign language
The study or learning of English in an environment where English is the predominant language, by someone whose first language is not English.
- ESL - English as a second language
The teaching of English in an environment where English is not already the predominant language, such as in a non English speaking country, to someone whose first language is not English.
- TELL - Technology-enhanced language learning
- TEFL - Teaching English as a foreign Language
The teaching of English in an environment where English is the predominant language, to someone whose first language is not English.
- TESL - Teaching English as a second Language
This acronym might be a substitute for TESL more than for TEFL. It is sometimes preferred over TESL because English can be a third, fourth or fifth, etc. language to a student.
- TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (or) Teaching English as a Second or Other Language
- ELT - English Language teaching
- TOEFL - Test of English as Foreign Language
- TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication
- TPR - Total Physical Response
- English Forum is a popular web portal with extensive resources for students and teachers of English (ESL/EFL). Interactive Exercises, Message Boards, ELT Book Catalog, Good School Guide, Web Directory, World News, Links, Cool Tools.
- http://www.optimnem.co.uk provides online language courses which teach spatial learning strategies for English, French and German. Tutor-supported.
- The Two Hands Approach to the English Language is a new approach to the teaching of English that draws on Oriental philosophy, general systems theory, and a student-friendly mix of expertise from other recent or distantly past methodologies.
- Serving Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Strategies for the School Librarian covers ways school librarians can help with ESL students.
- 1-language.com - Learn English Online Innovative ESL site with a host of free resources for teachers and learners of English as a Second Language.