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The city of Kalat is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, south and slightly west of the provincial capital Quetta.

Kalat is also the name of a district: one of 26 in the province with an area of 6,621 sq km. The population of the district was estimated at 316,787 in 1995. 89% of the population speak the Brahui language, 10% the Balochi language (presumably referring to first language). The climate is arid, hot in summer and cold in winter, with most rainfall occurring in winter. The terrain is mountainous with valleys and one main river named Moro. The main economic activity is agriculture and livestock farming. Most people are Sunni Muslims with a Hindu minority.

The city has the former palace of the Khans of Kalat and a Hindu temple of Kali Devi.

The district became officially much smaller after a reorganisation in 1954/1955, when the last Khan of Kalat was formally removed from power. Previously it contained the areas that are now the districts of Khuzdar, Awaran, Mastung, Bolan, Jhall Magsi and Dera Murad Jamali (Nasirabad) - much of the east of Balochistan, omitting regions in the north and south. Many references to Kalat are for this larger area.


The origins of the Brahui speaking tribes are uncertain. They were living in Kalat when the Balochi speaking tribes arrived from the west. The Balochis established a large kingdom under in the 15th century, but it fell apart. The Brahui Khans of Kalat were dominant from the 18th century until the arrival of the British in the 19th century. A treaty was signed in 1876 granting certain powers to the British. In 1947 Kalat became nominally independent again when the British withdrew, but was soon forced to join Pakistan. The last Khan of Kalat was formally removed from power in 1955.

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Kalat is a town in Afghanistan, also known as Qalat, Qalat-i-Ghilzai, Kalat-i Ghilzai etc. It is the capital of Zabul province and on the road between Kabul and Kandahar.