William Clark nicknamed him "Pomp" or "Pompy." Pompey's Pillar is named after him.
Years after the expedition, Charbonneau was left in the care of William Clark and was educated in St. Louis. At the age of 18, he met Prince Paul Wilhelm of Wurtemberg who invited Charbonneau to Europe, where he lived for six years.
He then returned to North America where he lived as a mountain man and army scout. He later was appointed alcalde of San Luis Rey Mission in California. He died in Danner, Oregon in 1866 at the age of 61 while enroute from California to gold fields in Montana.