The hereditary ruler of the Iranian monarchy was the Shah, who according to royal order of precedence, was equal in status to an Emperor. For most of its existence the Iranian monarchy had been an absolute monarchy, although there were attempts to reform it into a constitutional monarchy in the early twentieth century and following World War II.
The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation. The monarchy was abolished in 1979 when a revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic in its place.
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Iranian monarchs since 1502: