In Australia, an indictment is issued by government official (the Attorney-General, the Director of Public Prosecutions, or one of their subordinates). A magistrate then holds a committal hearing, which decides whether the evidence is serious enough to commit the person to trial.
In cases where there is a trial, indictable offences are normally tried by jury, unless the accused waives the right to a jury trial. However, the vast majority of cases in the United States are settled via a plea bargain. The accused is not normally in common law systems entitled to a jury trial if the offence with which they have been charged does not require an indictment; the main exception here is that jurisdictions in the United States grant the right to a jury trial for most criminal offences.