Human settlement on the location goes back to the Neolithic. In modern times Incheon became important because its location on an estuary makes it a good harbor; when the port was founded in 1883, the city's population was only 4,700. The population in 2000 was approximately 2,500,000. Incheon now has an international airport, and it was one of the locations of the 2002 Football World Cup.
The city boundaries include an area of 964.53 km2, of which 21 percent is rice paddies and another 44 percent is forested.
Incheon is regarded as a part of greater metropolitan area of Seoul for their close distance, that they are linked by Seoul Metropolitan Subway, and also that the main international airport for Seoul, Incheon International Airport, is at Incheon.