The last of the twelve cranial nerves
. Hypoglossal nerve arise from the hypoglossal nucleus and emerges from the medulla and passes through the hypoglossal canal. It supplies motor fibres to all of the muscles of the tongue (except palatoglossus muscle).
Aside from the tongue, the hypoglossal nerve also controls, via the ansa cervicalis, thyrohyoid muscle, omohyoid muscle, sternothyroid muscle and sternohyoid muscle.