, sometimes Latinized Herophilus
(335-280 BC), was a Greek
physician. He was born in Chalcedon
in Asia Minor (now Kadiköy, Turkey). He is known as the first anatomist in history. Together with Erasistratus
he is regarded as a founder of the great medical school of Alexandria. He was the first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body. He studied the brain, recognizing it as the center of the nervous system
and the site of intelligence. He also paid particular attention to the nervous system, distinguishing nerves from blood vessels and the motor from the sensory nerves. Other areas of his anatomical study include the eye
and the alimentary tract as well as the salivary and genital organs. His works were lost but were much quoted by Galen
in the 2nd century AD.