He was born in Żelazowa Wola in Poland and studied there and with Carl Flesch in Berlin. He made his solo debut in 1933 playing the Johannes Brahms Violin Concerto . From 1933 to 1939 he studied composition in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, and during World War II he worked as an interpreter for the Polish government in exile and gave concerts for the Allied troops all over the world. During one of these concerts in Mexico City he received an offer to take over the string department of the university there. He accepted the offer and became a Mexican citizen in 1946.
Szeryng subsequently focused on teaching before resuming his concert career in 1954. His debut in New York City brought him great acclaim, and he toured widely for the rest of his life. He died in Kassel.
Szeryng made a number of recordings, including two of the complete sonatas and partitas for violin by Johann Sebastian Bach, and several with the pianist Artur Rubinstein. He also composed, his works including a number of violin concertos and pieces of chamber music.