Under the control of regional powers such as Egypt or the Ottoman Empire through most of its history, Hejaz enjoyed a brief period of political independence in the early 20th century. It was one of several regions of the Ottoman Empire provoked into rebellion by T. E. Lawrence ("of Arabia") of the British during World War I. In 1916 its independence was proclaimed by Husain ibn Ali, the sherif of Makkah. In 1924, however, ibn Ali's own authority was usurped by ibn Saud of the neighboring nation of Nejd. This annexation was instrumental in the creation of the Saudi Arabian state.
(See also Hejaz railway.)
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