In 1636, the capital of the Calenberg line of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was moved to the city of Hanover, and hence the line was also known as the Hanover line. In 1692, the duke received the additional title of elector (see Holy Roman Empire elector). In 1714, the Hanoverian electors became kings of Great Britain (see House of Hanover).
The Kingdom of Hanover was created by the Congress of Vienna of 1815, and given to the former electors. The personal union with the United Kingdom ended in 1837. In the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866, Hanover was annexed by Prussia and became a province (3.5 million inhabitants in 1939). In 1946, the British military administration made Hanover the main part of the state of Lower Saxony.