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A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of the physical environment and human habitat.

Historically known as someone who makes maps, mapmaking is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. The geographer is capable of studying not only the physical details of the environment but also its impact on human and wildlife ecologies, weather patterns, economics, and culture.

The skills required to become a geographer are grounded in the physical sciences but are also influenced by the social sciences. The modern geographer focuses mainly on resolving the environmental and locational problems of contemporary society.

See also: List of geographers.

There is also a well-known painting by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer, which is often linked to Vermeer's The Astronomer. These paintings are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting, 1668-69.