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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. There are a number of possible causes for genetic defects:

Genetic disorders can frequently be explained as due to the change of a single DNA base in a gene, resulting in an enzyme or other protein either not being produced, or having altered functionality. This can be trivial and relatively harmless in its effects, such as color blindness, or lethal such as Tay-Sachs. Other disorders, though harmful to those afflicted with them, appear to offer some advantage to carriers; as in carriers of sickle cell anemia and thalassaemia appearing to have enhanced resistance to malaria.

Several hereditary diseases are sex-linked, meaning that they afflict one sex much more common than the other because the mutation is located on the X (or, rarely, on the Y) chromosome.

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