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The Fula is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, from Mauritania in the northwest to Nigeria in the east. They are called many names, including Foulah, Peulh, Peul, Fulfulde, Fulbe, and Fulani. A closely related group is the Tukolor (Toucoleur) in the central Senegal River valley.

The Fula are traditionally a nomadic, pastoral race, herding cattle, goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations. They are the only major migrating people of West Africa.

They speak the Pulaar language, or variants thereof, as do the Tukulor; all local people who speak that language natively are known as the "halpulaar". The traditional dress of the Fula in most places is long colorful flowing robes, modestly embroidered or otherwise decorated. Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, moving their herds.