The Fratres Arvales
were an ancient order of priests, dated back to the time of Numa Pompilius
, second king of Rome, that still persisted to the imperial period. Their task was the worship of Dea Dia
, an old fertility goddess. On the days of her festival, the Ambarvalia
, they led a procession chanting the Carmen Arvale
, the exact meaning of which was not longer understood in later times. Numerous attempts to translate it into modern languages in recent times are to be regarded as more or less likely approximations.