Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index


The flatness of a surface is the degree to which it approximates a mathematical plane. The term is generalized for higher-dimensional manifolds to describe the degree to which they approximate the Euclidean space of the same dimensionality.

Table of contents
1 Flatness in mechanical engineering
2 External links
3 Flatness in cosmology
4 External links

Flatness in mechanical engineering

Joseph Whitworth invented the first practical method of making and polishing accurate flat surfaces in 1830. This used engineer's blue and polishing techniques using three trial surfaces. This led to an explosion of development of precision instruments using his flat surfaces as a basis for further construction of precise shapes.


External links

Flatness in cosmology

In cosmology, a question often asked is "is the Universe flat"? According to the Theory of Relativity, it probably is curved and warped due to gravity.

See also:

External links