The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. Raptor classification is fraught with difficulty and the order is treated in several different ways.
- Traditionally, all the raptors are grouped into 4 families in this single order.
- In Europe, it is most common to split the order into two: the falcons and caracaras remain in the order Falconiformes (about 60 species in 4 groups), while the remaining 220-odd species (including the Accipitridae—eagles, hawks, and many others) are placed in the separate order Accipitriformes.
- The American Ornithologist's Union leaves Falconidae and Accipitridae in Falconiformes, but places the New World vultures (family Cathartidae) with the storks in Ciconiiformes.
- Finally, in the influential Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the raptors are all placed in a vastly expanded Ciconiiformes.
Falconiforms are known from the Middle Eocene
and typically have a sharply hooked beak
with a cere (soft mass) on the proximodorsal surface, housing the nostrils
. Their wings
are long and fairly broad, suitable for soaring flight, with the outer 4-6 primaries emarginated.
Falconiformes have strong legs and feet with raptorial claws and an opposable hind claw. Almost all Falconiforms are carnivorous, hunting by sight during the day or at twilight. They are exceptionally long-lived, and most have low reproductive rates.
The young have a long, very fast-growing fledgling stage, followed by 3-8 weeks of nest care after first flight and 1-3 years as sexually immature adults. The sexes have conspicuously different sizes, and monogamy is the general rule.
DNA studies mean that it is likely to be some time until a consensus is restored on this group of birds. See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy.