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4 Cities and towns
History\nWhen counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Essex County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Charlotte County, contained the eastern portion.
In 1784, the name "Charlotte County" was changed to Washington County in honor of George Washington, the American Revolutionary War general and later President of the United States of America.
In 1788, Clinton County was split off from Washington County. This was a much larger area than the present Clinton County, including several other counties or county parts of the present New York State.
Essex County was split from Clinton County in 1799.
Geography\nEssex County is in the northeastern part of New York State, just west of Vermont along the eastern boundary of the State. The eastern boundary of Essex County is Lake Champlain, which serves as the New York-Vermont border.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,964 km² (1,916 mi²). 4,654 km² (1,797 mi²) of it is land and 310 km² (120 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 6.25% water.
Demographics\nAs of the census2 of 2000, there are 38,851 people, 15,028 households, and 9,828 families residing in the county. The population density is 8/km² (22/mi²). There are 23,115 housing units at an average density of 5/km² (13/mi²). The racial makeup of the county is 94.84% White, 2.81% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 2.19% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 15,028 households out of which 29.20% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.20% are married couples living together, 8.90% have a female householder with no husband present, and 34.60% are non-families. 28.30% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.60% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.39 and the average family size is 2.93.
In the county the population is spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, and 16.00% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 39 years. For every 100 females there are 107.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 108.60 males.
The median income for a household in the county is $34,823, and the median income for a family is $41,927. Males have a median income of $30,952 versus $22,205 for females. The per capita income for the county is $18,194. 11.60% of the population and 7.80% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 14.50% are under the age of 18 and 8.60% are 65 or older.
Cities and towns\n*Chesterfield\n*Crown Point\n*Elizabethtown\n*Essex\n*Jay\n*Keene\n*Lake Placid\n*Lewis\n*Minerva\n*Mineville-Witherbee\n*Moriah\n*Newcomb\n*North Elba\n*North Hudson\n*Port Henry\n*Saranac Lake\n*Schroon\n*St. Armand\n*Ticonderoga\n*Westport\n*Willsboro\n*Wilmington