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Dorothy Richardson

Dorothy Richardson (1873-1957) was the first writer to publish a novel using what was to become known as the stream of consciousness technique. Her fourteen novel sequence Pilgrimage is one of the great 20th century works of 20th century modernist and feminist literature in English.

Table of contents
1 Early Life
2 Richardson the Bohemian
3 Writings
4 External link
5 References

Early Life

Richardson was born into impoverished gentility and from the age of seventeen she was forced to earn her own living. This she did by working as a tutor-governess, first in Hanover, then in north London, and finally in an English country house. Her mother committed suicide in 1895, leading to the complete breakup of the family. Richardson moved back to London to work in Harley Street as secretary/assistant to a dentist.

Richardson the Bohemian

In London, Richardson began moving among avant garde Socialist and artistic circles, including the Bloomsbury set. She started to publish translations and freelance journalism and eventually gave up her secretarial job. In 1917, she married the artist Alan Odel. Odel was many years younger than Richardson and was a distinctly bohemian figure, with his waist-length hair wound around his head. Until Odel's death in 1948, the couple spent winters in Cornwall and summers in London.


Throughout her career, Richardson published large numbers of essays, poems, short stories, sketches and other pieces of journalism. However, her reputation as a writer rests firmly on the Pilgrimage sequence. The first of the Pilgrimage novels, Pointed Roofs (1915) was the first stream of consciousness novel in English, although Richardson herself disliked the term, preferring to call her way of writing interior monologues. The discovery of this technique is usually credited to James Joyce and Virginia Woolf. The failure to recognise Richardson's role is partly due to the critical neglect of Richardson's writing during her lifetime. The fact that Pointed Roofs displayed the writer's admiration for German culture at a time when Britain and Germany were at war may also have contributed to the general lack of recognition of the book's radical importance.

Richardson can also be read as a feminist writer, not because she overtly calls for equal rights for women but because her work quite simply assumes the validity and importance of female experiences as a subject for literature. The central character in Pilgrimage, Miriam, is a woman in search of her own full identity, which she knows quite clearly cannot be defined in male terms of reference. Richardson's wariness of the conventions of language, her bending to near breaking point of the normal rules of punctuation, sentence length, and so on, are means towards what she termed feminine prose, which she clearly saw as necessary for the expression this female experience.

External link


Dorothy Richardson: Pilgrimage ,4 vols (London, Virago. 1979).