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In linguistics, declension is a feature of inflected languages: the changing of a noun to indicate its grammatical role. This is seen, for example, in Latin. In English grammar, the same task is now accomplished with word order, though a few remnants of an older declined form of English still exist (e.g. the words "who" and "whom").

In inflected languages, nouns are said to decline into different forms, or morphological cases. Morphological cases are one way of indicating grammatical case; other ways are listed below.

Languages are categorized into several case systems, based on how they group verb agents and patients into cases:

The following are systems that some languages use to mark case instead of, or in addition to, declension: See Nominative case, Accusative case, Dative case, Ergative case, Absolutive case, Genitive case, Vocative case, Partitive case, Inessive case, Elative case, Illative case, Adessive case, Allative case, Ablative case, Essive case, Translative case, Instructive case, Abessive case, Comitative case, Prolative case, Locative case, Possessive case, Instrumental case.

Some languages have more than 20 cases. For an example of a language that uses a large number of cases, view the "Cases" section in the Finnish language grammar article.

Some languages have different declension for different classes of nouns, e.g. persons, animals, things.