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David ap Gruffydd

David or Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c.1235 - 1283) was a prince of Gwynedd, a younger son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and his wife, Senena, and thus grandson of Llywelyn the Great. During his career, Dafydd had repeatedly switched allegiances between his elder brother, Llywelyn the Last and King Edward I of England, but it was his rash attack on Hawarden Castle in March, 1282, that caused the final conflict with Norman England, in the course of which Welsh independence was lost. The last Prince of Gwynedd and Wales, he ruled only for a few months after Llywelyn's death, effectively an outlaw. Seeking refuge from the English forces in the mountains of Gwynedd, he was eventually captured and executed at Shrewsbury, and is identified by some sources as the first victim of hanging, drawing and quartering. His two sons and several daughters, mostly by Elizabeth (or Eleanor) Ferrars, were sent to prison and convents respectively after his death, and none ever emerged alive to threaten English domination.