As of the census of 2000, there are 48,411 people, 20,607 households, and 12,941 families residing in the city. The population density is 434.1/km² (1,124.2/mi²). There are 23,108 housing units at an average density of 207.2/km² (536.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 53.86% White, 44.11% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, and 0.78% from two or more races. 1.26% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 20,607 households out of which 26.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% are married couples living together, 19.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 37.2% are non-families. 33.9% of all households are made up of individuals and 15.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.27 and the average family size is 2.89.
In the city the population is spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 19.6% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 40 years. For every 100 females there are 83.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 77.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $26,900, and the median income for a family is $36,024. Males have a median income of $29,620 versus $21,384 for females. The per capita income for the city is $17,151. 20.0% of the population and 15.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 33.9% are under the age of 18 and 12.3% are 65 or older.