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Cryopreservation is a process where cellss or whole tissuess are preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures, such as (typically) -80°C or -196°C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). At these low temperatures, the biochemical reactions that would lead to cell death are slowed or stopped. However, the cells being preserved are often damaged during the approach to low temperatures or warming to room temperature.

Two phenomena which cause damage to cells during cryopreservation are solution effects and intracellular ice formation. Solution effects are caused by concentration of solutes in non-frozen solution during freezing as solutes are excluded from the crystal structure of the ice. The mechanism of cell damage due to intracellular ice formation is not well understood.

One of the most important early workers on the theory of cryopreservation was James Lovelock of Gaia theory fame. Dr. Lovelock's work suggested that damage to red blood cells during freezing was due to osmotic stresses.

Water bears (or tardigrada), microscopic multicellular organisms, can survive freezing at low temperatures by replacing most of their internal water with the sugar trehalose.

Usually, this technique is used for biological materials. Common examples include:

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