Córdoba was the birthplace of three famous philosophers: the Roman Stoic, Seneca, the Arab, Averroes, and the Jewish Maimonides. Córdoba was also the birthplace of the Roman poet, Lucan and (more recently) of several flamenco artists including Paco Peña.
In Roman times, the city had more culturals buildings than Rome. It was the Baetica's capital. We can now see the Roman Temple (Claudio Marcelo's temple), the Roman Bridge, Maximilian palace and many others ruins distributed around the city.
Córdoba was conquered by the Moors in 711, and Moorish influence can still be felt in the city. During the time of Islamic rule it became the largest and most cultural city in Europe. It was the see of the Muawiya Caliphs. In s.X, it was the largest, cultural and important city in all Europe. There was more than 1,000 mosques and 600 baths houses. It was retaken for Christianity in 1236, and became a centre of activity against the remaining Islamic population.
The most important monument in the city is the Mosque (the 3rd largest mosque in the world). After the conquest, the Christians built a cathedral in the middle, so it is two temples in one. Another splendid monument is the city (in ruins) Madinat Al-Zahira. Important monuments are also the Alcazar, where in 1492, Christopher Columbus got the permission to travel to the "Indies". The califal baths and its churchs and typical streets of the Jewish quarter Judería.
It is is currently the only major Spanish city with a Communist mayor.