According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 108.5 km² (41.9 mi²). 107.0 km² (41.3 mi²) of it is land and 1.5 km² (0.6 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 1.34% water.
As of the census of 2000, there are 7,452 people, 2,950 households, and 2,203 families residing in the township. The population density is 69.6/km² (180.3/mi²). There are 3,089 housing units at an average density of 28.9/km² (74.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the township is 99.53% White, 0.04% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, and 0.17% from two or more races. 0.42% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 2,950 households out of which 28.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% are married couples living together, 8.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 25.3% are non-families. 22.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 13.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.48 and the average family size is 2.92.
In the township the population is spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 20.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 43 years. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.3 males.
The median income for a household in the township is $30,530, and the median income for a family is $36,798. Males have a median income of $30,000 versus $20,786 for females. The per capita income for the township is $16,034. 6.6% of the population and 4.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 8.1% are under the age of 18 and 8.3% are 65 or older.
Conemaugh Township includes the towns of Jerome, Davidsville, Tire Hill, Thomas Mills, part of Holsopple, and surrounding countryside.