For subsonic compressible flows, it is sometimes possible to model the flow by applying a correction factor to the answers derived from incompressible calculations or modelling - for example, the Glauert-Prandtl rule
a c / ai ~ 1/sqrt(1 - M 2)
(a c is compressible lift curve slope, ai is the incompressible lift curve slope, and M is the Mach number).
For many other flows, their nature is qualitatively different to subsonic flows. A flow where the local Mach number reaches or exceeds 1 will usually contain shock waves. A shock is an abrupt change in the velocity, pressure and temperature in a flow; the thickness of a shock scales with the molecular mean free path in the fluid (typically a few micrometers).
Shocks form because information about conditions downstream of a point of sonic or supersonic flow can not propgate back upstream past the sonic point.
The behaviour of a fluid changes radically as it starts to move above the speed of sound (in that fluid). For example, in subsonic flow, a stream tube in an accelerating flow contracts. But in a supersonic flow, a stream tube in an accelerating flow expands. To interpret this in another way, consider steady flow in a tube that has a sudden expansion: the tube's cross section suddenly widens, so the cross-sectional area increases.
In subsonic flow, the fluid speed drops after the expansion (as expected). In supersonic flow, the fluid speed increases. This sounds like a contradiction, but it isn't: the mass flux is conserved but because supersonic flow allows the density to change, the volume flux is not constant.