He was born in Edam.
He won the speed skating title, participating in his only World Championship, in 1905 in Groningen, in his home country. The opposition was small (only three other skaters entered) and only one non-Dutchman started: Martinus Lørdahl from Norway, who won the 500 m. After that, De Koning won all three remaining distances, thus claiming the title. De Koning participated in 2 European Championships (1904 and 1906) and 3 Dutch Championships (1903, 1905, 1912), winning all those National Championships. His National Records on the 500 and 10000 m from 1905 stood for more than 20 years until they were broken in 1926 and 1929. Coen de Koning is also famous for winning the Elfstedentocht twice, in 1912 and 1917.