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Cholelithiasis is the presence of stones in the gallbladder - chole- means "gall bladder", lithia meaning "stone", and -sis means "process".


The two commonest forms of gallstones are stones made primary of cholesterol salts and calcified gallstones. Many other forms of gallstones have also been identified.

Surgical options

Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) has a 99% chance of eliminating the reoccurrence of cholelithiasis. There are two surgery options: open procedure and laparoscopic.

Open procedure

This involves an incision into the abdomen (laparotomy) below the right lower ribs. A week of hospitalization, normal diet a week after release and normal activity a month after release.


Puncture holes for camera and instruments (available since the 1980s)


75% of the Pima Native American elders have cholelithiasis.

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