is, especially in Italy
, a free-standing bell-tower (Italian campana,
'bell') adjacent to a church or cathedral.
The most famous Campanile probably is the Leaning tower of Pisa; another one is the Campanile in St. Mark's Square, Venice.
At the beginning of the nineteen eighties the theme Campanile was revised by H. R. Hiegel and Florian Mausbach. After a spectacular design by architect H.R. Hiegel dating from the year 1983, in 1990 Helmut Jahn built the Frankfurt Messeturm.