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Caleb is a figure from the Jewish Torah (the first five books of the Christian Old Testament) who is noted for his faith in God when the Hebrew nation refuses to enter the "promised land" (what is now the nation of Israel).

When the Hebrews came to the outskirts of Canaan, the land they believed had been promised them by God, after having fled slavery in Egypt, Moses (the Hebrew leader) sent twelve scouts into Canaan to report on what was there. Ten of the scouts returned to say that the land would be impossible to claim, and that giants lived there who would crush the Hebrew army. Only two, Joshua and Caleb, returned and said that God would be able to deliver Canaan into the hands of the Hebrew nation.

The Torah records that, because of the testimony of the ten scouts, the Hebrews chose not to enter Canaan: for this disobedience, God caused them to wander in the desert for forty years before being allowed to enter Canaan and conquer it as their home. It is said that the only adult Hebrews allowed to survive these forty years and enter Canaan were Joshua and Caleb, as a reward for their faith in God. This story is recorded in the book of Numbers.