In statistical thermodynamics, **Bose-Einstein statistics** determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium.

Bose-Einstein (or **B-E**) statistics are closely related to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics (M-B) and Fermi-Dirac statistics (F-D).
While F-D statistics holds for fermions, M-B statistics holds for "*classical* particles, i.e. identical but distinguishable particules, and represents the classical or high-temperature limit of both F-D and B-E statistics.

Bosons, unlike fermions, are not subject to the Pauli exclusion principle: an unlimited number of particles may occupy the same state at the same time. This explain why, at low temperatures, bosons can behave very differently than fermions; all the particles will tend to congregate together at the same lowest-energy state, forming what is known as a Bose-Einstein condensate.

B-E statistics was introduced for photons in 1920 by Bose and generalized to atoms by Einstein in 1924.

*E*is the energy*k*is Boltzmann's constant_{B}*T*is absolute temperature*A*is a normalization constant